A page featuring generally the houses of the Bents and wider Hall-Dare family. If you have any more information on their English or Irish properties, please do get in touch!
The London homes
From the late 1870s until Mabel’s death in 1929, the Bents lived in Great Cumberland Place, London, a Regency/Georgian sweep of properties, a stone’s throw from Marble Arch, and for nearly twenty years they would leave their comfortable London residence together every winter for the hardships and inconveniences of travel in the Eastern Mediterranean, Southern Arabia and Africa – greater contrasts it is difficult to imagine.
Originally the Bents leased Number 43 Great Cumberland Place, with its adjacent mews entrance passing underneath their drawing rooms, until the early 1880s, following which they moved closer to Marble Arch, again leasing, at Number 13.
At Number 13 the Bents were in the habit of putting on small exhibitions of archaeological and ethnographic finds from their travels – including the famous and iconic soapstone birds taken from ‘Great Zimbabwe’, now back in Africa.
After Theodore’s death in 1897, Mabel continued to reside in rather lonely isolation at Number 13 until her death in 1929.
Number 13, alas, has not survived, but Number 43 has! Its elegant and understated facade can be passed in a few paces, but a glance up at the doorway, windows and upper storeys may still reveal the figures of the Bents – in their famous Ulster coats – either preparing for, or returning from, very far away places: Great British travellers indeed.
Sutton Hall and the ‘country’ homes
‘Sutton Hall’, from W.W. Keyworth, ‘Pen & Pencil Sketches of Macclesfield and the adjoining neighbourhood’ (Claye, Brown and Claye, Macclesfield, no date).
A casual reference to a remote Cheshire hamlet begins Mabel’s 5th Chronicle in January 1888. It is written in Istanbul (or Constantinople as she prefers), about as far removed from the Norman-founded house of Sutton Hall as one can get, and all a long way from rural Cheshire. The modest grand house of Sutton Hall, a few miles from both Macclesfield and Chesterfield, has sturdy Norman roots and was leased for a period of time by Theodore and Mabel, continuing the Bents’ involvement with the property.
Wikipedia’s entry for the house informs us that:
‘The house is constructed partly in stone, and partly in timber framing, with a U-shaped plan. The arms of the “U” end in irregular gables. The left gable is in stone, and the right is timber-framed. The upper storey of the right gable is jettied, the jetty being supported on brackets carved with wooden figures, one a knight in chain mail. Between the two wings is the former great hall. A 16th century chapel at the rear of the house, which has served at different times as stables and as a convent, now serves as the restaurant kitchens. The house is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.’
‘Once the property of the Sir Humphrey Davenport, Chief Baron of the Exchequer in 1631, the Manor of Sutton later passed by marriage to Sir Rowland Belasyse, an ancestor of the Earls of Fauconberg. In 1819 it was acquired by the Countess of Lucan and descended to her successors, the Lords Lucan, primarily used as a farmhouse. The countess had been born Elizabeth Belasyse, daughter of Henry Belasyse, 2nd Earl Fauconberg and in 1794 had married Richard Bingham, who became the 2nd Earl of Lucan in 1799. By 1804, after six children, they had separated.’
In its present incarnation, the erstwhile Bent residence is a pleasant, out-of-the-way gastro-pub and very worthy of a detour and lunch. [GPS= 53.240306854248,-2.1160869598389]. The pub’s website includes a potted history and photo gallery.
Local historian Alan Dinnis adds:
‘The Bents had been in the Sutton area for some time. Back in 1838-39, when St James’ Church was planned, members of the family contributed a total of ten pounds to the building fund. In the 1860s, when it was customary for church pews to be rented, “The Misses Bent” held eight seats with another four seats for their “domestics”. Theodore owned The Elms in Byron’s Lane and had another house in London. He also held the lease (from the Earl of Lucan) of Sutton Hall, which was occupied by his Aunt Maria.’ [personal communication, Oct 2011]
Sutton Hall was initially leased by Bent’s uncles and then his parents, James Bent and Margaret Eleanor (née Lambert, daughter of wealthy Baildon (near Bradford) locals, John and Ann Lambert of Baildon Hall), who married in April 1848. The Bent family could be traced back some generations in the north of England, related to the splendidly-named Hamlet Bent (1642-1728).
As well as their fine home in Baildon, and assorted properties in the area, Theodore’s father’s family (presumably) also leased Sutton Hall, it seems as a home for their unmarried sisters/aunts, and which was later to become the favourite English summer residence of Theodore and his wife Mabel.
We know that the Bent family (via Theodore’s father and uncles) had some interests in Sutton Hall from as early as 1829. The great friend and backer of the Bents’ brewery businesses in the wider region, James Caldwell (1759-1838), has left us this note in his diary (a wonderful and extended project in the care of J. J. Heath-Caldwell which contains hundreds of references to the brewing Bents), i.e.: “Tuesday 6 [January, 1829]. Up early, Breakfasted at the Hotel. Afterwards met Mr. Bent at the Brewery. From thence walked to look at the Macclesfield Canal, which appeared to be in good progress. Called at Sutton Hall, where the Carriage met me & from thence returned to Linley Wood…”
In the summer of 1885, Theodore (now comfortably off) put up for sale five freehold cottages and premises (totalling about four hectares) at Brook Hill, Baildon (and a freehold close of land in Slaughter Lane) at auction. The young explorer was left with Baildon House and his property interests in Sutton. (Anglo-Irish Mabel had access to lands of some grandeur in Co. Wexford and Theydon Bois, Essex, where the couple rest together today in the Hall-Dare plot in St Mary’s church.)
It is unclear what happened to the lease at Sutton Hall up until Mabel’s death in 1929, but at Theodore’s death in 1887 it was incorporated into his trust estate:
‘. . . I bequeath to my Aunt Maria Bent her executors administrators and assigns absolutely All that my leasehold messuage called Sutton Hall Macclesfield wherein she now resides for all my term and interest therein she paying the rent and observing and performing all the covenants and conditions contained in the lease thereof. I devise all my freehold or copyhold estate at Sutton near Macclesfield aforesaid called “The Gurnett” unto my trustees . . . Upon trust to permit my said Aunt Maria Bent during her life to receive the rents and profits thereof and from and after her decease I declare that the said freehold or copyhold estate shall sink into and become part of the trust estate hereinafter mentioned…’ [‘Clause in Will of J T Bent, signed 21 Jan 1891’]
It seems that ‘The Gurnett’ was linked in some way with the property referred to (see above) as ‘The Elms’. This residence was perhaps in turn rented out, as in 1895 it was the residence of one ‘Alderman John Birchenough JP‘, a prominent local politician and silk manufacturer, and described as ‘a pretty mansion in Byrons’ Lane, Sutton’.
In addition, Theodore Bent’s name appears in a copy of old deeds from the late 1890s of a house in Gurnett. It shows him as owning the adjoining land around Gurnett House. This is a large 16th Century house about 100 yards from Sutton Hall. The area shows clearly on Ordnance Survey maps of the time (follow the Macclesfield Canal south of the town until you come to Gurnett and Sutton Hall).
Sutton Hall pub’s own website has an interesting archaeological snippet:
‘In the grounds of Sutton Hall there is a somewhat dilapidated Bronze Age barrow (now the resting-place of a water trough). In 1962 the barrow was again excavated, by James Forde-Johnston of Manchester University, who unearthed evidence of several further cremations. He discovered that the mound had originally been around 100 yards in diameter, but was substantially reduced, with many of the river cobbles having been removed to the nearby farmyard for use in paving, where they can still be seen.’
Theodore would most certainly have known of it (probably a cremation site, now much reduced in size), and in all likelihood taken a spade to it, although we have neither record nor proof: although the ‘somewhat dilapidated’ is perhaps one clue (!) and a search for Forde-Johnston’s notes might reveal others.
Sutton’s local church of St James’ contains a sweep of memorial windows to the Bents. Theodore installed one for his father, who died in December 1876, and his mother, who died in November 1873. And their son, in his turn – and nicely depicted as St James – has one donated by his widow. In the church guide we read:
‘This window is dated 1897 and depicts a pilgrim ending life’s journey at the gate of Heaven and being welcomed by an angel. The pilgrim is dressed as St James. There is a scallop shell in his pilgrim’s hat… The window is in memory of J. Theodore Bent, of Baildon House, Yorks, and Sutton Hall, who died on 5th May 1897 aged 45. It was given by his widow Mabel, of 13, Great Cumberland Place, Middlesex.’ [Alan Dinnis, St James’ Church, Sutton: 1840–1990, Macclesfield 1990, 136]
The Cheshire Observer of 27 November 1897 provides more information:
‘Mrs. Mabel V. A. Bent, residing at 13, Great Cumberland Place, London, applied for a faculty to place a stained-glass window at the east end of the church, as a memorial to the late James Theodore Bent, a former parishioner. The cost (£72) would be defrayed by Mrs. Bent. – The faculty was granted.’
It is a fine, long window (dated 1896 curiously), depicting the pilgrim (Theodore) being welcomed by an angel at heaven’s gate. The caption reads: ‘To God’s glory and in remembrance of J. Theodore Bent. FRGS, FSA. Son of James and Margaret Eleanor Bent of Baildon House, Yorks, and Sutton Hall. Died May 5 1897, aged 45.’
Mabel specified two quotations: ‘The highways were unoccupied and the travellers walked through byways’ (Judges 5:6) and ‘They were strangers and pilgrims on the earth’ (Hebrews 11:13). Mabel and Theodore are reunited in these lines. (There are other memorials to the Bents and Hall-Dares in Baildon (St John’s), Theydon Bois (St Mary’s), and Bunclody (Co. Wexford, also St Mary’s.)
But Sutton Hall was to remain one of the Bents’ happiest homes and they spent time there as often as they could – their routine from the early 1880s until Theodore’s death in 1897 was to travel in English winters and return to England and Ireland for summers and autumns. As well as visiting family and friends, Theodore would spend these periods writing, lecturing, and preparing for the next season and the beeswaxed and grandfather-clock-ticking rooms of Sutton Hall would have been furnished with the desks and tables on which Theodore worked on many of his books (see the bibliography) as well as the hundreds of letters (his correspondents including Rider Haggard: did he have Bent in mind as Allan Quatermain?), as well as the articles and lectures he generated over the twenty or so years of travel.
As for Sutton’s later role in the lives of the Bents, future research, we hope, will uncover the story of Mabel’s holidays, as a widow, at Sutton Hall, but we may assume that Theodore last saw the house in the summer and autumn of 1896 before leaving for Sokotra and Aden – his final journey.
We must wait for a suitable Bent memorial at the gastro-pub that Sutton Hall now is (although at the upstairs windows one might glimpse faces still), but just along the lane, on the little hill that offers up St James’, Theodore, from his stained glass window, looks out south and south-east towards their remarkable routes and researches in the Mediterranean, Africa, and Arabia: thousands of land – and sea-miles, on hundreds of steamers, small boats, horses, mules, camels, and ox-carts to ‘Great Zimbabwe’. Today’s pub visitors have no idea – but, inside, the dark, Victorian rooms crackle with Empire.
(Readers interested in more on the Bents at Sutton Hall are directed by the link here to the Archaeopress Blog article.)
‘The House on the Shore’, the Solway Firth, Scotland
Kathleen Prudence Eirene Bagenal (born 28 December 1886), Mabel’s niece, was the daughter of Lieutenant Beauchamp Frederick Bagenal and Ethel Constance Mary Hall-Dare (Mabel’s sister, Ethel). Kathleen’s first husband was Captain William Stewart Burdett Blackett, who had a large estate, Arbigland, on the Solway Firth in Scotland. The photograph here is of ‘The House on the Shore’, in the grounds of Arbigland. William died fighting in Belgium in 1914 and Kathleen later remarried (1918) Brig.-Gen. William Frederick Swiny. Kathleen, moving from the big house, supervised the building of her dower house, ‘The House on the Shore’, between 1934 and 1936, living there until her death in 1974. She was a beneficiary of Mabel Bent’s estate and more than likely lived with certain trophies of the Bents’ many travels – the Levant, Arabia, Africa – on display around her. Mabel makes no direct mention of Arbigland, but, Kathleen being a favourite niece, her aunt must have been a fairly regular visitor, probably travelling north from Sutton Hall. A packet of Mabel’s letters formerly kept at Arbigland is now in the Royal Geographical Society’s archive in London.
‘Benekerry House’, Co. Carlow
The above-mentioned Kathleen spent her childhood at one of the Bagenal family’s fine Irish properties – Benekerry House, Co. Carlow. Kathleen’s father, Beauchamp Frederick Bagenal (1846-1930) married Mabel Bent’s sister, Ethel Constance Mary Hall-Dare on 5 July 1870 and the couple occupied Benekerry House. They had five children (Mabel’s nephews and nieces): Mary Verena Bagenal (1871-1889); Beauchamp Walter Bagenal (1873-1952); Major Charles James Bagenal (1877-1955); Violet Ethel Bagenal (1882-1932); and Kathleen Prudence Eirene Bagenal (1886-1974).
The following information on Benekerry is taken with kind permission from Nick Kingsley’s wonderful site Landed Families of Britain and Ireland: “A seven-bay, two-storey house, dating originally from the early 18th century, and perhaps built for the Newton family, soon after they first rented the estate from Bishop Vigors in 1702; they later acquired the freehold. In about 1840, a single-storey neo-classical addition was built along the whole length of the entrance front, consisting of an enclosed three-bay granite porch in the centre, with a short open colonnade of Doric columns to either side. The dormers in the roof are a 20th century addition. In 1978 a four bay, single-storey wing was added to one side. Inside, the house has a panelled hall and staircase, and one room has an apsed end with a screen of two Grecian Ionic columns, which sounds as though it may also date from c. 1840. Descent: Rt. Rev. Bartholomew Vigors (1644-1721), who leased it to Bryan Newton…John Newton (d. 1748); to son, Bartholomew Newton (d. 1780); to son, John Newton (d. c.1807); to brother, Col. Philip Newton (1770-1833); to second son, Philip Newton (later Bagenal) (1796-1856); to widow, Georgiana Thomasina Bagenal (c.1814-97); given (c.1870?) to son, Beauchamp Frederick Bagenal (1846-1930); to son, Beauchamp Walter Bagenal (1873-1952); sold 1936 to S. Roche…sold to Andrew Morrissey (d. c. 2008)…”
‘Warham House, Herefordshire’
Warham House, overlooking the Wye Valley (photo: Breinton Parish Council)
The English census of both 1901 and 1911 record that Caroline Hall-Dare (1842–1918), Mabel’s much-loved sister-in-law (widow of Mabel’s brother Robert, who died of typhoid in Rome in 1876), was renting Warham House in Herefordshire. By then Caroline’s son (also Robert) had charge of the main Hall-Dare residence at Newtonbarry, Wexford, and Caroline spent more time in England. By all accounts Caroline was a good lady who, with her sister, looked after the estate and people living here after her husband died so suddenly; she developed the Newtownbarry Lace School which gave employment to many of the wives of the farm workers, she entered her needlework and lace displays in the mansion house in Dublin, and in London and Manchester.
In 1834, Warham “was advertised for sale, described as a delightfully situated residence with drawing, dining and breakfast rooms; thirteen bedrooms, offices etc. and suitable for a respectable family. As well as the house, there was a lovely walled garden and 40 acres of meadows and orchards which stretched down to the bank of the River Wye.” (Herefordshire Past)
“Warham House was rebuilt in 1854 with striking late gothic gables, probably by Edward Pugin, but parts date back to the 16th or 17th century. The N. wing is of 16th century or earlier date and probably formed part of a larger house, of which the lower S. wing possibly represents the original one-storeyed Hall. Its existing features, however, indicate a 17th century early Georgian date, and so do those of the addition on the W. side. The original wing has exposed and close-set timber-framing. The stone chimney-stack has two 17th-century brick shafts. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams.” (Breinton Parish Council, Herefordshire)
[The illustration of Caroline Hall-Dare showing her ‘prize Dandy Dinmonts’ (at the Dublin Dog Show in 1899) is from an original print taken from ‘Sporting notes from Ireland’, (Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News section), April 29, 1899, page 338]
‘Baildon House, Baildon, West Yorkshire’
Theodore Bent’s childhood home. This fine, Grade II listed, home consists of two dwellings, a cottage and house, now linked together. From the informative book ‘Baildon and the Baildons; a history of a Yorkshire manor and family’ by W.P. Baildon (1912, Baildon), we have it that the handsome residence also known as ‘The Rookery, Low Baildon… was probably built by Robert Holden; a stone on the south front [of the main house] has the initials “R. H.” and the date 1724; hence Holden Lane, which runs alongside; it was formerly known as “Baildon House.” William Holden of Low Baildon died in 1809, aged 71, leaving an only daughter, Anne, who married John Lambert. Mr. and Mrs. Lambert were both buried in Baildon Chapel, as also was their only son, William Holden Lambert… The property descended to two daughters, one of whom, Margaret Eleanor, married James Bent [Theodore Bent’s father]… Mr. and Mrs. Bent lived at Baildon House (The Rookery), and here was born, in 1852, their son, James Theodore Bent, the distinguished traveller and antiquary…’
In fact, Theodore was born in Liverpool on 30 March 1852, an only child at a time when large families were very much the norm – explained perhaps by the fact his father, James, (1807-1876) was 45 when Theodore was born and his mother, Margaret (c. 1811-1873), 41, and their son’s name ‘a gift from God’ thus highly appropriate.
James Bent was was a member of a large and entrepreneurial clan, with, particularly, brewing interests; his marriage in April 1848 to a wealthy heiress, and with a house to boot, meant that he could semi-retire to Baildon, his wife’s village (as it was then), and enjoy a life of relative ease and manage his estate and rents until his death in 1876. The mural tablet in the south aisle of the Bents’ local church, St John’s, suggests James’ comfort in his small, close Baildon family (mercifully distant from the cutthroat, competitive and roller-coaster brewery businesses run by brothers John, William, Thomas and Rowland in Liverpool, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Macclesfield): ‘This Monument is erected in affectionate remembrance of Margaret Eleanor Bent, the beloved wife of James Bent, Esq., of Baildon House, who died November the eleventh, 1873, Aged 62. She was a loving wife, a devoted mother, and an humble Christian, Loving and greatly beloved. ” Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on Thee, because he trusteth in Thee.” Isaiah, xxvi, 3 v. [‘Baildon and the Baildons’, p. 28]. (W.P. Baildon’s book also refers to the Bents having at their local church: ‘St John’s, Baildon: Pews 13 & 15 (latter for ‘servants’)… [and] a pew (34) for Major Bradley for his houses in Kirklands [pp. 193-4]; and page 195 lists James Bent as chapel trustee and ‘of Liverpool, common brewer’.)
James’ in-laws, the Lamberts (sometimes Lambarts) represented a prominent local family, Lords of the Manor of Baildon with an elegant ‘Hall’ and local estates – memorials to them can be found today in St John’s church. An harmonious coda followed when Theodore married Mabel, her Irish mother coming from a distant branch of this family.
For a glimpse of this area of Yorkshire (Aireborough, Baildon, Bingley, Shipley) in 1889/91 (when Theodore Bent was still a property owner) there is an evocative 1894 OS 6″ map; and for delightful armchair ‘walks’ of Baildon, settle down with the series of on-line booklets produced by Baildon Local History Society (Commissioned by Baildon Parish Council) and no-nonsensely illustrated by Roy Lorrain-Smith (good maps by Vic McLindon). Their ‘Threshfield Walk‘ (revised 2016) includes the Lamberts’ ‘Baildon Hall’, the Bents’ ‘Baildon House’, and sections on Theodore Bent’s assets at ‘Brook Hill’, a portion of which “… is said to have been one of the properties sold by James Theodore Bent to finance his trip to Zimbabwe to visit the ruins in Mashonaland in 1890/91” – but this is uncorroborated.
After his father’s death, Theodore kept Baildon House, renting it out, residing with his wife at their (rented) house in London (Great Cumberland Place, first 43, then 13) and their larger manor at Sutton Hall, outside Macclesfield. On Theodore’s death in 1897, the Baildon property was sold to a Mr. Smith Feather, J. P.
The Wikipedia page for Baildon House provides informative architectural and design details: ‘Cottage and house, now single residence. Cottage: initialled and dated “R H M” 1 7 1 5 (Holden family); House initialled and dated “RH” 1724… Hammer-dressed stone, stone slate roofs, two storeys. A long range with cottage to left. This has two 1st floor windows. Doorway with tie-stone jambs with 2-light flat-faced mullioned window above; tripartite sashed windows with same above; doorway (blocked) with date stone over and a semicircular-arched window (blocked). Coped gable with kneelers and weathervane to left. Large stack to right gable. Linking passage to house, breaking forward, has 3-light windows to each floor. House: 3-room plan with four 1st floor windows. Quoins. Outer bays have mid-C20 canted bay windows with 4-light window above. 2nd bay has altered doorway with date stone over in decorative plaque with single-light window above. 3rd bay has 5-light window to each floor. 1st-floor windows have recessed flat-faced mullions with an inner chamfer. Moulded eaves cornice, coped gables with stacks… Interior: most rooms have richly moulded cornices. Stairhall has closed string staircase with wreathed and ramped handrail, slender turned balusters, 2 to each riser, pair of cast-iron columns the capitals enriched with acanthus decoration. Semicircular-arched doorway with impost, architrave and keystone.’
Coming next, “Newtonbarry House”, Mabel Hall-Dare’s childhood home